Effect of cooking time and temperature on vitamin D3 amount in the fortified sunflower oil

Document Type : Original Article


1 Food, Halal and Agricultural Products Research Group, Research Center of Food Technology and Agricultural Products, Standard Research Institute, Karaj, Iran

2 Research Investigator at University of Michigan, Michigan, USA


According to WHO report, more than 2 billion people in the world suffer from micronutrient deficiencies caused largely by a dietary deficiency of vitamins and minerals. Fortification of some staple foods is one of the simplest and most practical methods to combat micronutrient deficiencies for both poor and wealthy societies. In this study sunflower oil was fortified with different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 1 and 10 μg/mL) of vitamin D3. Then the reduction of vitamin D3 for concentrations of 0.1 and 0.9 μg/mL at different times (0, 2, 4, and 6h) and cooking temperatures (70, 110, and 150○C) and also at deep-fat frying temperature of 180○C, concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/mL were investigated.
The results showed that the relative resistance of this vitamin observed at 70 ○C. Over the specified time, at 110, and 150 ○C, the amounts of vitamin D3 were decreased significantly. At 180 °C (deep frying), more than 60% of vitamin D3 was decomposed. Also, after heating, pyro- and iso-pyrocalciferol were detected as vitamin D3 decomposition compounds at deep-fat frying temperature using GC-MS. Based on the obtained results, free- vitamin D3 added to cooking oil can be stable at temperature lower than 100○C but for higher temperature, encapsulation of it is proposed.


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